Isnin, 22 Jun 2015


"Perhaps, the most famous Malayalee to land in George Town was Iskandar Kutty, a merchant who married a Johor-Riau wife Siti Hawa Iskandar. They became the proud parents of Alor Star’s top public school Sultan Abdul Hamid College’s founder-principal and Kedah’s royal educator Datuk Mohamad Iskandar. Mohamad was the school teacher of Tunku Abdul Rahman. He and his wife Datin Wan Tempawan Wan Hanafi from the Kedah Bendahara’s (Prime Minister’s) clan, were the proud parents of Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad, Malaysia’s Father of Modernisation and fourth Prime Minister. And contrary to popular belief, pulled tea or teh tarik and roti canai or Tamil unleavened bread are Malayalee dishes, not Tamil ones."
Posted by cai at 4:25 AM ”

Jewish Malayalam
Gamliel, Ophira | Zacharia, Scaria
Description by Scaria Zacharia
Jews in Kerala, India
According to tradition and available records, Jews have been in Kerala, one of the southern states in the Republic of India, since at least the beginning of the common era. The Kerala community is distinct from the Bene Israel Jews, centered in Bombay, Calcutta, and other cities in central and northern India. In the 1940s there were about 2500 Malayalam-speaking Jews in India, and after 1948 most of them migrated to Israel. Today there are only a handful of Jews left in Kerala, but the Jewish Malayalam language is maintained by many of the immigrants to Israel, most of them elderly.
Kerala Jews are known as Cochin Jews in the popular discourses of Israel and other parts of the world. They have also been labeled Malabar Jews, White Jews, and Black Jews. In intimate communication, members of this Kerala Jewish community prefer not to use these terms to refer to themselves. They introduce themselves using names of places and synagogues, such as Paradesi Jews (Foreign Jews of Cochin), Kadavumbagam Jews (Ernakulam/Cochin), Thekkumbhagam Jews (Ernakulam/Cochin), Parur Jews, Chendamangalam Jews, or Mala Jews. The terms Black Jews and White Jews, referring to the centuries-old community and the more recent immigrants from Europe and the Middle East, respectively, were popularized by foreign visitors and colonialists and are considered derogatory. In most western and academic writings, the focus has been on Pardesi White Jews, living in Cochin, so less is known about other Kerala Jewish communities. The Pardesi community was always numerically small, but it played an important role in the socioeconomic life of Cochin. Most of the visitors and researchers who came in search of the Jews of Kerala never cared to go beyond Cochin and meet other Jews. This type of partial reporting has distorted treatises on Kerala Jews. Today Kerala Jews, who trace their origin to different local communities of Kerala, are reasserting their identities in their new settlements in Israel.
Malayalam and Jewish Malayalam
Malayalam is the official language of Kerala. About 30 million people use this language in everyday life, and it has a vibrant literature. About three million copies of Malayalam newspapers are printed every day, and Malayalam programs are aired on six radio stations and five television channels. While the majority of Malayalam speakers are Hindu, several religious minority groups speak distinct varieties. Malayalam, a member of the Dravidian family, developed as a distinct dialect of Tamil in the 8th to 10th centuries CE. It diverged by the increased use of Sanskrit derivatives and the disuse of person, number, and gender markers in finite verbs.
Since the development of Malayalam as distinct from Tamil, Jews have used some variety of Malayalam as their everyday spoken language. The Jewish variety has differed by the use of Hebrew loanwords and Dravidian archaisms in lexicon, phonology, and syntax. And like most Jews around the world, Kerala Jews use Hebrew for liturgical purposes.
There has been very little research on Jewish varieties of Malayalam. The information in this description is based mostly on a corpus of about 200 songs written and sung by Jewish Malayalam-speaking women. These Jewish Malayalam folk songs (JMFS) were sung at life-cycle events and holiday celebrations, and they include many Jewish religious signifiers in the forms of biblical allusions and formulaic blessings and prayers. JMFS are currently under analysis by scholars of Indology, Jewish studies, and Malayalam studies as part of a project of the Ben-Zvi Institute of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. A pioneering volume of about 50 songs is due to be published in 2004 along with translations into Hebrew. A German translation of these songs (Frenz & Zacharia 2002) was already published, and a larger volume of English translations is under preparation. In addition, the Jewish Music Research Center of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem is producing a CD of JMFS.
Linguistic Structure
There are three main components of JMFS: Dravidian (Malayalam and Tamil), Sanskrit, and Hebrew. In addition, there is a sprinkling of influence from other Jewish languages, such as Ladino. The core of the linguistic substance is Dravidian, similar to contemporary Malayalam.
One of the most notable features of Jewish Malayalam is the presence of fossilized elements from the pre-Malayalam layer. These archaisms exist at several levels, including lexicon, morphology, phonology, and semantics. A semantic example can be found in one of the wedding songs: the bride is described as covering her head with three types of flowers that have NaRRam. The word NaRRam exists in contemporary Tamil, Malayalam, and other local languages with the meaning 'bad smell'. However, in this case the word is used with its old Tamil sense: 'good smell'. This is just one example of the many elements of Jewish Malayalam that may seem like contemporary Tamil borrowings but are actually archaic remnants from before Malayalam split off from Tamil.
Another significant feature is the abundance of archaic Dravidian derivatives to denote Jewish concepts. The best examples are names for God, many of which are loan translations from Hebrew. Jews, Muslims, and Christians share the most popular form Thampuran 'Lord'. Jews and Muslims share Padachavan 'creator'. But Mulamudayon 'the one at the beginning', Oruvanayavan 'the only one', Sadakan 'the doer', Adimulamvayavan 'the one who is the root cause', and Adiperiyon 'the great beginner' are words for God used only by Jews. The typical Jewish concept of redemption is expressed by a special word coined from a Dravidian root "mil," according to well-accepted morphological rules: Milcha 'redemption' and Mirchakaran 'redeemer' are frequently found in JMFS but are non-existent in general Malayalam. JMFS are full of variants of these two Malayalam words, sometimes altered beyond recognition.
Because of the frequency of archaisms, an ordinary Malayalam speaker would be bewildered by the opaqueness of JMFS. Even the women who still sing these songs today may not understand some of the words they use. But the linguistic archaisms – as well as biblical allusions – contribute to the speakers' sense of ethno-religious distinctiveness.
Hebrew Borrowings
Like Jewish languages around the world, Jewish Malayalam includes a number of Hebrew words and idioms, such as tora ('Torah'), shalom ('peace'), shir ('song'), and aliya ('ascension') . In a few instances Hebrew words appear as part of Malayalam compounds, such as alam padacavanthe 'world-created-he' and shalom ayi 'died' (lit. 'entered the state of peace').
Using only the JMFS corpus as data, it is difficult to determine how Jewish Malayalam differs phonologically from its non-Jewish correlate. It is written in Malayalam script, and the notebooks vary significantly in the graphemic representations of phonemes and allophonic distributions. This is especially true in the case of borrowed words from Sanskrit and Hebrew. In certain cases, the same Hebrew word is written in JMFS in three of four forms.
Even so, it is possible to determine one distinct phonological feature: the realization of hiatus between vowels. In general Malayalam, as well as other Dravidian languages, vowel continuum is prevented. In JMFS, however, it is allowed.
Spoken Jewish Malayalam
The spoken Malayalam of Kerala Jews, as I understand from my short but intimate contact with them in Israel, is not syntactically different from that of Malayalam speakers in and around Cochin. But many of them hesitate to speak with me in Malayalam, apologizing for their 'Jewish Malayalam'. This may be explained in the context of traditional schooling in Kerala, which insisted on the heavily Sanskritized 'standard Malayalam'.
Since the majority of Jewish Malayalam speakers are elderly, the days of the language are numbered. In order to document the spoken language, scholars must act soon.
Other Religious Minorities of Kerala
While the majority religion in Kerala is Hinduism, there are several religious minorities. Parallel to Jewish linguistic practice, traditional Thomas Christians and Mappila Muslims of Kerala have used Syriac and Arabic, respectively, as their religious languages. Jews, Christians, and Muslims have been able to take full part in Malayalam-speaking society while maintaining their religious distinctiveness, expressed partly through linguistic means. Of these three groups, Muslims have had the greatest impact on general Malayalam, contributing many Arabic loanwords. This may be explained by the historical fact that Arabic was the language of commerce on the Kerala coast. Even the Portuguese made use of Arabic-speaking interpreters for their trade in Kerala. Today Arabic borrowings endure in various spheres of Kerala life, including literature. Mappila Malayalam, a mixed language of Arabic and Malayalam, has the status of a literary dialect. Some of the most celebrated writers of modern Malayalam, such as Vaikom Muhammed Basheer, write in modern Malayalam incorporating elements of the Muslim dialect.

Malaysian Jews
Is a term used to refer to Jews living in Malaysia, or those originally from the country. A good number used to live openly in the state of Penang until towards the end of the 1970's. They were also found elsewhere in the nation, especially in Negeri Sembilan and Malacca. Malaysian Jews consists mainly of Sephardic and Marrano Jewish descendents amongst the Kristang people (Portuguese descent Eurasians), Oriental Jews (the majority of whom are Baghdadi Jews), India's Cochin Jews, with the rest being Ashkenazi Jews and possibly Chinese Jews, who fled from Kaifeng, China, during the Communist take-over of mainland China from the Nationalist Chinese in 1949.
The first contact between Jews and the inhabitants of Malaya (later part of Malaysia) goes back to the 9th century AD on the riverbanks of the Bujang Valley, and later well into the 18th Century AD in the cosmopolitan bazaars of Malacca. The presence of Sephardic Baghdadi Jews in Penang probably occurred at the turn of the 19th century as the fledgling British ruled entreport grew and attracted Jewish trading families like the Sassoons and Meyers from India. There was also significant emigration of Jews from the Ottoman province of Baghdad as a result of the persecutions of the governor, Daud Pasha, whose rule lasted from 1817 to 1831.
The first Baghdadi Jew known by name to have settled in Penang was Ezekiel Aaron Menasseh, who emigrated from Baghdad in 1895. Menasseh claimed to have been the only practicing Jew in Malaya for 30 years until after World War I, when a significant number of Baghdadi Jews began to settle in Malaya.
During the Japanese invasion of Malaya, the Penang Jewish community was evacuated to Singapore, and many were interred by the Japanese during the subsequent occupation of both Malaya and Singapore. After the war, a majority had emigrated to Singapore, Australia, Israel and the United States. By 1963 (formation of Malaysia), only 20 Penang Jewish families remained in the country.
Penang's only synagogue, located on 28, Nagore Road, closed down in 1976 as the community could no longer fulfill the minyan, a quorum of ten or more adult Jews assembled for purposes of fulfilling a public religious obligation.
Today, approximately 100 Jews who are refugees from Russia are said to reside in Malaysia. The original Penang Jewish community has ceased to exist with the death of Mordecai (Mordy) David Mordecai on 15 July 2011. The rest of the Penang Jews have either embraced Christianity or else have emigrated to other countries, especially with the rise of anti-semitic sentiments and anti-Israel policies pursued by the Malaysian government since the 1970s.
Jahudi Road (or Jew Road) in Penang, where the majority of the Penang Jewish population stayed, has since been renamed Jalan Zainal Abidin, erasing another legacy of the Jewish presence in Malaysia. The only significant presence remaining is the Jewish cemetery and the old, disused synagogue.
Many of the descendants of the Penang Jews are mainly seen in Singapore (such as ex late Chief Minister David Marshall, a Baghdadi Jew). Many also reside in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States, especially in New York, but their numbers are unknown. The majority of Penang Jews spoke Malay and English, whilst the rest spoke mainly Yiddish, Persian, Hebrew and also Arabic.

Perlu ke ambe perjelaskan lagi takrifan MELAYU KLON ?

Catat Ulasan


Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...